Sugar and its varieties

Method of sugar production

To produce sugar, first the cultivated beet or sugarcane is harvested, transported to the factory and then weighed into the production line. In the production process, the produced sugarcane or beet is first washed and then cut intermittently. The obtained slices enter the extraction stage. The syrup obtained from this step is first refined and then its concentration is increased. The next step is the crystallization step, in which the syrup is heated and after the mixture is saturated, powdered sugar is added to form the crystal. Then, in the centrifuge stage, the syrup is poured into a mesh basket and due to the high speed, the effluent is removed and the sugar crystal remains on the mesh. (At this stage, the resulting liquid is molasses.) The resulting sugar crystal is moist and needs to be dried to achieve the final product. Finally, the produced sugar enters the warehouse and is sold after packaging.


In culinary art, the word sugar refers to crystallized sucrose obtained from sugarcane or sugar beet, but chemically, sucrose is a type of disaccharide, just like maltose from grains and lactose from milk.

In addition to making sweets, sugar changes the way you cook. For example, sugar reduces the formation of gluten in wheat flour. For this reason, foods that use more sugar in their cooking have a softer texture. Sugar also contains a compound called hydroxyl, which means it absorbs and retains moisture. For this reason, it helps baked goods such as bread and cakes to stay fresher and dry later.

The result of refining sugarcane is two products, sugar (sucrose) and sugar syrup (molasses).

Types of sugar include white sugar, brown sugar, brown sugar or raw sugar, raw granulated sugar, decorative sugar

white sugar

White granulated sugar is a common type of sugar. This type of sugar is extracted from beets and sugarcane, which is not much different and 99.95% of it is sucrose. If this sugar is stored in suitable conditions and in impermeable packages against moisture, it will have unlimited storage capacity.

Different types of white sugar


Different types of white sugar vary in particle size, and sugar can be “granulated” or “powdered”, each with its own uses. Granulated sugars are classified into infinitesimal to coarse sizes.

  1. Infinitely fine sugar:

In English with the terms:

-extra-fine granulated sugar

-Superfine sugar

– ultrafine sugar

-bar sugar

– instant dissoving sugar

-berry sugar

-fine granulated sugar

-caster sugar and castor sugar

It is determined and it is the same ordinary sugar that due to grinding, its grain size has become smaller and as a result it has found a softer texture. Due to the small size of the particles, this type of sugar dissolves quickly in liquids. It should be noted that the amount of grinding is not enough to turn sugar into powdered sugar.

Caster sugar is a very fine type of sugar. Using finer sugar can dissolve more easily during the cooking process and create a better texture.

Depending on the size and type of sugar, use a weight gauge instead of a volume or cup when measuring for your instructions.

The roughness and heterogeneity of the sugar crystals are effective in aerating the dough and cause air to be trapped in the dough. The granulated sugar finds more crystals as it grinds and at the same time maintains its crystallized state. As the number of crystals increases, the aeration of the dough will increase. This is not the case with powdered sugar, which has lost its crystalline sugar. Granulated sugar is not available in packaged form in Iran, but you can make it at home.

  1. Ordinary sugar, table sugar, crystallized white sugar, fine sugar:

This type of sugar is called in English

-regular sugar

– table sugar

-standard granulated sugar

Or fine granulated sugar

It is known to be the most common and widely used type of sugar. If the sugar is stored in suitable conditions and in impermeable packages against moisture, it will have unlimited storage capacity.

  1. Medium to large sugars:

These sugars have different names depending on the particle size and because of their resistance to baking heat, they are often used for spraying on confectionery products. For example, we can name sanding sugar or coarse sugar.

  1. Powdered sugar, powdered sugar or Nisar:

In English with the terms:

-powdered sugar

-confectioner’s sugar

Or icing sugar

It is determined. If ordinary sugar is ground and sieved with three to 5 percent corn starch, powdered sugar is obtained. Powdered sugar is much softer than granulated sugar and cannot be prepared with home mills. Due to its small particle size, powdered sugar mixes easily with water or oil at any temperature and is used in the preparation of various icings, fondant doughs and… What we make at home from powdered sugar or sugar crumbs is actually very fine sugar and cannot be used instead of powdered sugar.

Cornstarch is added to powdered sugar to prevent it from clumping, but it has a great effect on the texture of sweets. Unfortunately, this point is not observed in our country, and in most cases (especially in the case of bulk sugar powders) sugar or sugar crumbs are powdered alone and without adding cornstarch, which causes problems, especially in the baking of Korean sweets. It slows down and causes these sweets to fall out of the oven. Also, this powdered sugar is not sifted and has large particles of sugar or sugar. So be sure to sift your powdered sugar before use.

If you use bulk and non-factory powdered sugar and you are sure that cornstarch has not been added to it, you should replace 3 to 5% of it with cornstarch, especially in the preparation of butter sweets such as Oscar and… Do not get in trouble. That is, for every 95 grams of sugar powder, mix 5 grams of cornstarch with it.

By replacing some of the sugar in the sugar confectionery recipe with the same amount of powdered sugar, the dough becomes more cohesive and retains its shape better due to the presence of cornstarch.

Sugar powder cannot be replaced with ordinary sugar in the recipes.

  1. Aromatic or colored decorative sugars:

Colored sugars (tinted sugar) are prepared by adding permitted food colors to regular sugar or powdered sugar and often have a decorative aspect.

Decorative sugars are usually prepared by adding permitted food colors to sugar and have a decorative aspect, and since they are difficult to dissolve, they are not used as raw sugar and in cooking, and are used to decorate cakes and pastries.

These sugars come in a variety of names on the market, from sand and pearl sugar to coarse-grained sugar.

Some are opaque and some are clear and glassy

Pearl sugar:

Which is sometimes called nib sugar or hail sugar. Pearl sugar is a type of white sugar that has a coarse, hard texture and a matte color

Sand sugar:

Sand sugar is mainly used for decoration. This sugar has large crystals that are resistant to heat and you can use different colors in decorations.

Aromatic sugars are also prepared by adding aromatic substances such as cinnamon, vanilla, citrus peel, etc. to sugar.

Brown sugar


Brown sugar is actually sucrose, which is a less refined version of regular sugar; This means that it contains certain amounts of molasses as well as caramel. This sugar has a caramel color and caramel taste due to its caramel and molasses. The water absorption and soft texture of this sugar helps keep the product fresh. Pastries made with brown sugar turn golden faster than regular sugar. There are different types of brown sugar that differ in the amount of molasses and the method of preparation.

Types of brown sugar:

1- raw sugar:

Concentrated crystals of beet or sugarcane extract are described above. The amount of molasses and minerals of this type of sugar is more, but because molasses is inside the sugar particles and is a part of it, it seems less.

Of course, in other countries, raw sugar is offered in different types and under different names. Examples are “Turbinado”, “muscovado” and “demerara” sugars, which differ in production methods.

Sugar Demerara:

It is a type of sugar produced from raw sugarcane with the least amount of refining. It has large grains in the color of amber and gives a natural flavor to your sweets. It is used to sweeten coffee or tea, or to flavor baked goods such as cookies and cakes.

Turbinado sugar:

Another type of sugar is sugar with the least amount of refining. Turbinado sugar has a pleasant caramel flavor and is commonly used to sweeten beverages.

Muscovado sugar:

It is also called Barbados sugar. Muscovado sugar is a dark-colored unrefined sugarcane sugar that has a sticky, moist texture and a thick taste. It is used in preparing kebab sauce.

Ordinary raw brown sugar in Iran can be obtained from perfumers, and recently packaged varieties are also available.

Raw sugar due to its large grain size is very suitable for sprinkling on sweets, muffins, tarts.

2- Light brown sugar:

It is also called golden brown sugar and it is the same refined sugar to which 3.5% molasses has been added. In most cases, if the type of brown sugar is not mentioned in the recipe, this type of sugar is considered. It has a sandy and sticky texture

3- Dark brown sugar:

The same sugar is refined to which 5.6% molasses is added.

Brown sugar is often made by adding sugarcane molasses to refined white sugar. Brown sugar prepared by this method has a smaller particle size than raw sugar and its molasses is easily separated from sugar grains by washing. While raw sugar grains are inherently brown in color and do not fade when washed. Because sugarcane molasses tastes better than sugar beet molasses, sugar cane molasses is often used to make brown sugar.

Red sugar or tabarzard

Red or Tabarzad sugar is the natural type of sugar to which no additives have been added and it is prepared from sugarcane extract and has about 88% sugar. Some people consider red sugar to be the same as brown sugar, but they are different.

Brown sugar is a sugar that is made in the production process in a factory system and is added with the addition of some chemicals, and the amount of vitamins and minerals may be reduced. Brown sugar in the form of coarse grains in Available in the market. Brown sugar changes color when poured into water.

Red sugar is prepared from sugarcane extract and after boiling this extract, red sugar is obtained and it is prepared in a traditional way and no chemical additives are added to it. Red sugar is a paste and does not change color when poured into water.

The amount of calories and sucrose in red sugar is much less than brown sugar and white sugar, and its taste and smell have led to its use in confectionery and baking cakes in addition to home use.

The nature of red sugar is warmer and it is very useful for relieving colds and also the amount of calories and sucrose of red sugar is much less compared to brown sugar and white sugar.

Raw granular sugar:


Raw granular sugars are brown and dry crystalline sugars. These sugars are commonly used to sweeten coffee or tea, instead of cooking. Of course, this type of sugar can also be used to decorate cakes and sweets. This type of sugar is less refined than regular white sugar, but it also has less molasses than brown sugar.

Sugar cane:

Unlike granular sugar, which is obtained from sugarcane or sugar beet, sugarcane sugar is produced only from sugarcane and with the least amount of processing. Also, the grains are slightly larger and darker than other sugars and have a higher price than other types of sugars.

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